Accountless Design

NameAccountless Design
OriginVille Sundell
ExampleDiem Forum Post
Depends onNone
Known to work onMove


Move module following the Accountless Design pattern doesn't handle storage (move_to() / move_from()) directly, instead the storage must be handled outside the module in transaction scripts. This makes the module code footprint smaller, design simpler, implementation more portable and provides a way to implement storage agnostic smart contract design on some Move powered platforms.


module 0x1::Outbox {
    use Std::Event;
    use Std::Signer;
    use Std::Vector;

    struct Item<Content: key + store> has key, store {
        from: address,
        to: address,
        content: Content

    struct Outbox<Content: key + store> has key, store {
        content: vector<Item<Content>>

    struct Put<phantom Content> has key, drop, store {

    struct EventHandle<phantom Content: drop + store> has key, store {
        event_handle: Event::EventHandle<Content>

    public fun create<Content: key + store>(account: &signer) {
        move_to<Outbox<Content>>(account, Outbox<Content> { content: Vector::empty<Item<Content>>() });
        move_to<EventHandle<Put<Content>>>(account, EventHandle<Put<Content>> { event_handle: Event::new_event_handle<Put<Content>>(account) } );

    public fun put<Content: key + store>(account: &signer, from: address, to: address, content: Content) acquires EventHandle, Outbox {
        let outbox_owner = Signer::address_of(account);
        let event_handle = borrow_global_mut<EventHandle<Put<Content>>>(outbox_owner);
        let outbox = borrow_global_mut<Outbox<Content>>(outbox_owner);

        assert!(to != @0x0, 123);

        Vector::push_back<Item<Content>>(&mut outbox.content, Item<Content>{ from, to, content });
        Event::emit_event<Put<Content>>(&mut event_handle.event_handle, Put<Content> {});

    public fun get<Content: key + store>(account: &signer, outbox_owner: address, index: u64): Content acquires Outbox {
        let account_addr = Signer::address_of(account);
        let outbox = borrow_global_mut<Outbox<Content>>(outbox_owner);

        let Item<Content>{from, to, content} = Vector::swap_remove<Item<Content>>(&mut outbox.content, index);

        assert!(from == account_addr || to == account_addr, 123);


Now Outbox can be used to retrieve and store resources in transaction scripts, and pass those to modules following the Script Based Design pattern.